Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Business and Significant Accounting Policies

v3.22.2
Summary of Business and Significant Accounting Policies
6 Months Ended
Jun. 30, 2022
Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]  
Summary of Business and Significant Accounting Policies Summary of Business and Significant Accounting Policies
Description of Business
UserTesting, Inc. and its subsidiaries (together, UserTesting or the Company) provide developers, designers, and product managers access to a video-first, enterprise-grade software-as-a-service (SaaS) platform that enables organizations to see and hear the experiences of real people as they narrate their thoughts out loud while engaging with products, designs, apps, processes, concepts, and brands. The Company was incorporated in the state of California and commenced operations on May 30, 2007. In September 2021, the Company was reincorporated in the State of Delaware. Other than the change in corporate domicile, the reincorporation did not result in any change in the business, physical location, management, assets, liabilities, or total stockholders’ equity (deficit) of the Company, nor did it result in any change in location of the Company’s employees, including the Company’s management. Additionally, the reincorporation did not alter any stockholder’s percentage ownership interest or number of shares owned in the Company. The Company is headquartered in San Francisco and has offices located in Atlanta, Sunnyvale, Norway and the United Kingdom.
Fiscal Year
The Company’s fiscal year ends on December 31. References to fiscal 2021, for example, refer to the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021.
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (U.S. GAAP) and applicable guidance for interim financial reporting. The condensed consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2021 included herein was derived from the audited financial statements as of that date, but, does not include all disclosures normally included in the complete financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheet as of June 30, 2022, condensed consolidated statements of operations and convertible preferred stock and stockholders’ equity (deficit) for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021, and cash flows for the six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021, and amounts relating to such interim periods included in the accompanying notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements are unaudited and certain information and note disclosures have been condensed or omitted pursuant to applicable guidance for interim financial reporting. The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the audited annual consolidated financial statements, and in management’s opinion, include all normal recurring adjustments, necessary for the fair statement of the Company’s financial position as of June 30, 2022 and its results of operations for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021, and cash flows for the six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021. The results for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022 are not necessarily indicative of the results expected for any future annual or interim period.
The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, which was filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on March 4, 2022.
Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of UserTesting, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Emerging Growth Company Status
The Company is an emerging growth company, as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (the JOBS Act). Under the JOBS Act, emerging growth companies can delay adopting new or revised accounting standards issued subsequent to the enactment of the JOBS Act, until such time as those standards apply to private companies.
The Company has elected to use this extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards that have different effective dates for public and private companies until the earlier of the date that the Company (i) is no longer an emerging growth company or (ii) affirmatively and irrevocably opts out of the extended transition period provided in the JOBS Act. As a result, the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements may not be comparable
to financial statements of issuers who are required to comply with the effective dates for new or revised accounting standards based on public company effective dates.
The Company will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of (i) the last day of the fiscal year in which the Company’s total annual gross revenue is at least $1.07 billion, (ii) the last day of the fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the completion of the Company’s initial public offering (IPO), (iii) the date on which the Company issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt securities during the prior three-year period, or (iv) the date on which the Company becomes a large accelerated filer.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the condensed consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. The Company bases its estimates and judgments on historical experience and on various other assumptions that it believes are reasonable under the circumstances. However, future events are subject to change and the estimates and judgments are subject to adjustment. Significant items subject to such estimates and assumptions include, but are not limited to, the estimated expected period of benefit for deferred contract acquisition costs, the determination of standalone selling price (SSP) for its performance obligations, the allowance for doubtful accounts, the useful lives of long-lived intangible assets, the value of the Company’s common stock prior to the IPO and other assumptions used to measure stock-based compensation, the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed for business combinations, lease term and incremental borrowing rate for lease liabilities, and the valuation of deferred income tax assets and uncertain tax positions. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
COVID-19
In December 2019, an outbreak of COVID-19 was first identified and by March 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a global pandemic. Governments and municipalities across the United States and the world have instituted measures to slow infection rates, including orders to shelter-in-place, travel restrictions, and mandated business closure. The global economic impacts of COVID-19, including any new variants, are significant and may continue to evolve, which may directly or indirectly impact the Company’s business, results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition depending on future developments that are highly uncertain and cannot be accurately predicted.
In response to COVID-19, the Company currently offers a flexible hybrid working model which allows its employees to choose to either work remotely or in-person, with all in-person events remaining voluntary. The Company has experienced, and may continue to experience, a reduction in certain operating expenses as compared to the Company’s expenses prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, such as travel and entertainment, as it allows all in-person events to be voluntary. However, these savings were offset by other investments across the business, such that operating expenses were not materially impacted. In addition, the Company’s revenue generation has not been significantly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, as the loss of certain existing customers and the inability of certain existing customers to make payments when due as a result of the adverse impact of COVID-19 on those customers’ businesses was generally offset by new customer acquisition. Driven by the acceleration of digital transformation initiatives in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Company believes some customers, including those customers with predominantly physical operations, turned to the Company’s platform to quickly build out or add sophistication to their digital customer experiences. Additionally, some new customers leveraged the Company’s platform to create a more seamless integration between their online and offline presence. Overall, there has not been a material impact to the Company’s business as a result of COVID-19.
Concentrations of Risks, Significant Customers and Investments
The Company’s financial instruments that are exposed to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents, and accounts receivable. The Company maintains its cash and cash equivalents with high-quality financial institutions with investment-grade ratings. A majority of the cash balances are with U.S. banks and are insured up to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation limits. The Company has not experienced any losses on its cash and cash equivalents.
One customer accounted for approximately 11% of accounts receivable as of June 30, 2022 and no single customer accounted for more than 10% of accounts receivable as of December 31, 2021. No single customer accounted for more than 10% of total revenue during the three and six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021.
The Company relies on the technology, infrastructure, and software applications, including software-as-a-service offerings, of third parties in order to host or operate certain key products and functions of its business.
Comprehensive Loss
Comprehensive loss is comprised of net loss and other comprehensive income (loss). The Company has no components of other comprehensive income (loss). Therefore, net loss equals comprehensive loss for all periods presented and, accordingly, condensed consolidated statements of comprehensive loss is not presented in a separate statement.
Segment Information
The Company operates in one operating segment. An operating segment is defined as a component of an enterprise about which separate financial information is evaluated regularly by the chief operating decision maker, who is the Company’s Chief Executive Officer. The Company’s chief operating decision maker is responsible for allocating resources and evaluating the Company’s financial performance.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less to be cash and cash equivalents. Cash equivalents consist of money market accounts with tiered interest rates and are denominated in U.S. dollars.
Fair Value Measurements
The Company categorizes assets and liabilities recorded at fair value on its consolidated balance sheets based on the accounting guidance framework for measuring fair value on either a recurring or nonrecurring basis, whereby inputs used in valuation techniques are assigned a hierarchical level.
Fair value is defined as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. The Company measures assets and liabilities at fair value at each reporting period using a fair value hierarchy which requires it to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value. U.S. GAAP describes a fair value hierarchy based on three levels of inputs, of which the first two are considered observable and the last unobservable, to measure the fair value:
Level 1 – Inputs are unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2 – Inputs other than Level 1 that are observable, either directly or indirectly, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities, quoted prices in markets that are not active, or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.
Level 3 – Inputs are unobservable based on the Company’s own assumptions used to measure assets and liabilities at fair value. The inputs require significant management judgment or estimation.
Fair value estimates are made at a specific point in time based on relevant market information and information about the financial or nonfinancial asset or liability.
Financial instruments consist of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable and accounts payable. The Company’s cash equivalents consist of money market accounts with tiered interest rates, which are carried at fair value. The Company has determined the carrying value to be equal to the fair value and has classified these investments as Level 1 financial instruments.
Accounts Receivable, Net
Accounts receivable, net, are recorded at the invoiced amount, net of allowance for doubtful accounts, and are not interest bearing nor secured by collateral. The allowance for doubtful accounts is based on the Company’s assessment of the collectability of accounts, considering a combination of factors including the Company’s customers’ financial condition and collection history, the age of open receivables and the current payment terms. Accounts receivable deemed uncollectible are charged against the allowance for doubtful accounts when identified. To date, allowances for doubtful accounts have not been material.
Property and Equipment, Net
Property and equipment, net, are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of three to five years for computer equipment, furniture and fixtures, and software. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of the remaining lease term or the estimated useful life. Expenditures for maintenance and repairs, which do not significantly extend the useful lives of the assets, are expensed as incurred.
The following table presents the Company’s property and equipment, net of accumulated depreciation and amortization, by geographic region (in thousands):
June 30,
2022
December 31,
2021
United States $ 2,331  $ 2,738 
United Kingdom 864  510 
Rest of the world 28 
Total property and equipment, net $ 3,223  $ 3,257 
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets (including Goodwill and Intangible Assets)
Long-lived assets with finite lives include property and equipment and acquired intangible assets. The Company evaluates long-lived assets, including acquired intangible assets, for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets held and used is measured by comparing the carrying amount of an asset or an asset group to estimated undiscounted future net cash flows expected to be generated by the asset or asset group. If the carrying amount of an asset or asset group exceeds these estimated future cash flows, an impairment charge is recognized by the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset or asset group exceeds the fair value of the asset or asset group.
Goodwill is not amortized but rather tested for impairment at least annually in the fourth quarter, or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that goodwill may be impaired. Goodwill impairment is recognized when the carrying value of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value, in which case an impairment charge is recorded.
The Company did not recognize any impairment charges during the three and six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021.
Deferred Offering Costs
Prior to the completion of the IPO in November 2021, deferred offering costs, which mainly consist of direct incremental legal, accounting, and consulting fees relating to the IPO, were capitalized in “Other long-term assets”. Upon completion of the IPO, the deferred offering costs, net of a reimbursement received from underwriters, were reclassified into equity as a reduction against IPO proceeds.
Revenue Recognition
The Company derives its revenues from two sources: (1) subscription fees from customers accessing the Company’s platform, and from customers paying for additional support; and (2) professional services and training. Revenue is recognized when promised goods or services are transferred to the customer in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services, net of any taxes collected from customers (e.g., sales and other indirect taxes), which are subsequently remitted to government authorities.
The Company determines revenue recognition through the following steps:
Identification of the contract, or contracts, with a customer;
Identification of the performance obligations in the contract;
Determination of the transaction price;
Allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and
Recognition of revenue when, or as, the Company satisfies a performance obligation.
Subscription Revenue
Subscription revenue primarily consists of subscription fees from customer agreements to access the Company’s platform, as well as additional support services. The Company’s customers do not have the ability to take possession of its software. The Company recognizes revenue for subscription fees and additional support services on a straight-line basis over the term of the contract beginning on the date access to the Company’s platform is granted, as the underlying service is a stand-ready performance obligation. Customers may also purchase incremental capacity to the Company’s platform, which is an additional stand-ready performance obligation satisfied and recognized as revenue over the remaining term of the applicable subscription. The Company views its performance obligation as a series of distinct services as the underlying subscription service is made available to the customer on a continuous basis over the contracted period of time, and that are substantially the same and have the same pattern of transfer to the customer. The Company has concluded that each distinct service is satisfied over time, specifically, given that the nature of its promise is not the actual delivery of a specified quantity of service but is rather providing a single service over a period of time. Customers who consume above their committed capacity will be invoiced for overages on a quarterly basis. The Company recognizes the overage fees as variable consideration. Revenue recognized as variable consideration was not material during the three and six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021.
The Company typically invoices its customers annually. Payment terms generally require that customers pay within 30 days of invoice. Amounts that have been invoiced are recorded in accounts receivable and in deferred revenue or revenue. The Company applies the practical expedient in Topic 606 paragraph 10-32-18 and does not adjust the promised amount of consideration for the effects of a significant financing component for contracts that are one year or less, and none of the Company’s multi-year contracts contain a significant financing component.
Professional Services Revenue
Professional services revenue primarily consists of fees from delivering research studies, training services and strategy workshops. The Company recognizes revenue from service engagements that occur over a period of time on a proportional performance basis as labor hours are incurred.
Significant Judgments - Contracts with Multiple Performance Obligations
The Company regularly enters into contracts with customers that include promises to transfer multiple services. For arrangements with multiple services, the Company evaluates whether the individual services qualify as distinct performance obligations. In its assessment of whether a service is a distinct performance obligation, the Company determines whether the customer can benefit from the service on its own or with other readily available resources and whether the service is separately identifiable from other services in the contract. This evaluation requires the Company to assess the nature of each individual service offering and how the services are provided in the context of the contract, including whether the services are significantly integrated, highly interrelated, or significantly modify each other, which may require judgment based on the facts and circumstances of the contract.
Contracts that contain multiple performance obligations that are considered distinct require an allocation of the transaction price to each performance obligation based on each performance obligation’s relative standalone selling price (SSP). The SSP is the price at which the Company would sell a promised good or service separately to a customer. In instances where the Company does not sell a product or service separately, establishing SSP requires significant judgment. The Company estimates the SSP by considering available information, prioritizing observable inputs such as historical
sales, internally approved pricing guidelines and objectives, and the underlying cost of delivering the performance obligation.
Costs Capitalized to Obtain Revenue Contracts
The Company capitalizes sales commissions and associated payroll taxes paid to internal sales personnel that are incremental costs resulting from obtaining a non-cancelable contract with a customer.
Sales commissions paid upon the initial acquisition of a customer contract are amortized on a straight-line basis over an estimated period of benefit of four years, which is typically longer than the contractual term of the customer contract but reflects the estimated period of benefit. The Company estimates the period of benefit by taking into consideration the estimated customer life, and the technological life of its platform and related significant features. The Company has elected the practical expedient to expense renewal commissions in the period of booking if the period of amortization is one year or less, and it recognizes renewal commissions over the contract term for renewal contracts greater than one year. Sales commissions on renewal contracts are not considered commensurate with sales commissions on new revenue contracts. Amortization of capitalized contract acquisition costs is included in sales and marketing expense in the condensed consolidated statements of operations.
The Company periodically reviews these costs capitalized to obtain revenue contracts to determine whether events or changes in circumstances have occurred that could impact the recoverability of the asset. There were no impairment losses recorded during the three and six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021.
Costs capitalized to obtain revenue contracts earned and capitalized during the three months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021 were $2.0 million and $3.0 million, respectively, and costs capitalized to obtain revenue contracts earned and capitalized during the six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021 were $4.5 million and $5.4 million, respectively. Amortization expense for costs capitalized to obtain revenue contracts during the three months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021 was $2.3 million and $1.6 million, respectively, and amortization expense for costs capitalized to obtain revenue contracts during the six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021 was $4.5 million and $3.0 million, respectively.
Cost of Revenue
Subscription Cost of Revenue
Subscription cost of revenue consists of three categories of expenses: UserTesting Contributor Network, platform, and support. UserTesting Contributor Network costs consist primarily of contributor payments for the tests completed as well as the cost to operate and support those contributors. Platform costs consist primarily of the cost to support the Company’s platform, including infrastructure-related, hosting, and personnel-related costs, such as salaries, bonus, stock-based compensation expense, and benefits. Support costs include the personnel-related costs, such as salaries, bonus, stock-based compensation expense, and benefits, of employees who directly support customers of the Company’s subscription services and amortization of acquired intangibles.
Professional Services Cost of Revenue
Professional services cost of revenue consists primarily of personnel-related costs, third-party consulting expenses, and allocated overhead.
Software Development Costs
Software development costs include costs to develop software to be used to meet internal needs and applications used to deliver the Company’s services. The Company capitalizes development costs related to these software applications once the preliminary project stage is complete and it is probable that the project will be completed and the software will be used to perform the function intended. Costs capitalized for developing such software applications were not material for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021.
Research and Development
Research and development expenses primarily consist of personnel-related expenses, including stock-based compensation directly associated with the Company’s research and development employees, contractor costs related to third-party development, and allocated overhead. Research and development costs are expensed as incurred.
Advertising Costs
Advertising costs are expensed as incurred in sales and marketing expense in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and were $3.4 million and $2.7 million for the three months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021, respectively, and $5.3 million and $4.1 million for the six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
Leases
The Company categorizes lease agreements at their inception as either operating or finance leases. Operating lease right-of-use (ROU) assets and related liabilities are included in “Operating lease right-of-use assets,” “Operating lease liabilities, current,” and “Operating lease liabilities, non-current” in the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheets. The Company did not have any finance leases.
ROU assets represent the Company’s right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and lease liabilities represent the Company’s obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. Operating lease ROU assets and liabilities are recognized at commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. As most of the Company’s leases do not provide an implicit rate, the Company uses its incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at commencement date, including credit premiums on its corporate borrowings, in determining the present value of lease payments. The operating lease ROU asset also includes any advance lease payments made and excludes lease incentives, where applicable. The Company’s lease terms may contain renewal and extension options of up to three years and early termination features. The Company does not include renewal or extension options or early termination features in its determination of the lease term to the extent they are not reasonably certain at lease commencement. Lease expense for lease payments to the extent they are fixed is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Variable lease payments are expensed as incurred and include certain non-lease components, such as maintenance and other services provided by the lessor to the extent the charges are variable.
The Company has elected to combine non-lease components with lease components for the purposes of calculating the ROU asset and liabilities, to the extent they are fixed. Non-lease components that are not fixed are expensed as incurred as variable lease costs. In addition, the Company does not recognize ROU assets and lease liabilities for short-term leases, which have a lease term of 12 months or less at the commencement of the lease.
In addition, the Company subleases its unoccupied facility to a third party. Such sublease has been classified as an operating lease. Any impairment to the associated ROU assets, leasehold improvements, or other assets as a result of a sublease is recognized in the period the sublease is executed and recorded in the condensed consolidated statements of operations. The Company recognizes sublease income on a straight-line basis over the sublease term.
Stock-Based Compensation
The Company has a stock incentive plan under which equity awards such as stock options, restricted stock awards (RSAs), and restricted stock units (RSUs) are granted to employees, directors, and/or consultants. Stock-based compensation expense related to equity awards is recognized based on the fair value of the awards on the date of grant. The fair value of each stock option is estimated on the grant date using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The Black-Scholes option pricing model requires the input of subjective assumptions, including the fair value of the underlying common stock, risk-free interest rates, the expected term of the option, expected volatility, and expected dividend yield. The expected term of the stock options is based on the average period the stock options are expected to remain outstanding, calculated as the midpoint of the option’s vesting term and the contractual expiration period, as the Company did not have sufficient historical information to develop reasonable expectations about future exercise patterns and post-vesting employment termination behavior. The expected stock price volatility for the Company’s stock was determined by examining the historical volatilities of its industry peers as the Company did not have any trading history of its common stock. The risk-free interest rate was calculated using the average of the published interest rates of U.S. Treasury zero-coupon issues with maturities that approximate the expected term. The dividend yield assumption is zero as the Company has no history of, nor plans of, dividend payments. The fair value of each RSA and RSU is estimated based on the fair value of the Company’s common stock on the date of grant. The related stock-based compensation expense for time-based equity awards is recognized on a straight-line basis over the corresponding requisite service period of the awards, which is generally four years.
The Company also has a 2021 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (2021 ESPP) under which stock purchase rights are granted to employees. Stock-based compensation expense related to stock purchase rights under the 2021 ESPP is recognized based on the fair value of the awards on the date of grant. The fair value of each stock purchase right under the 2021 ESPP is estimated on the grant date using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The Black-Scholes option pricing model requires the input of assumptions, including the fair value of the underlying common stock, risk-free interest rates, the applicable purchase periods within an offering period, expected volatility, and expected dividend yield. The related stock-based compensation expense for stock purchase rights under the 2021 ESPP is recognized on a straight-line basis over the award’s requisite service period, which is an offering period.
The Company accounts for forfeitures as they occur.
Prior to the IPO, the fair value of the Company’s common stock underlying the awards was determined by the Company’s board of directors with input from management and third-party valuation specialists. The board of directors determined the fair value of the common stock by considering a number of objective and subjective factors including: the valuation of comparable companies, the Company’s operating and financial performance, the lack of liquidity of common stock, transactions in the Company’s common stock, and general and industry specific economic outlook, amongst other factors.
After the IPO, the Company uses the publicly quoted price as reported on the New York Stock Exchange as the fair value of its common stock.
In September 2021, the Company granted RSUs which vest based upon the satisfaction of both a service-based condition and a liquidity event-based condition. The service-based vesting condition for these awards is generally satisfied over four years. The liquidity event-based vesting condition is satisfied upon the occurrence of a qualifying event, which is generally defined as an underwritten initial public offering or a change in control transaction. The related stock-based compensation expense for these awards is recognized using an accelerated attribution method from the time it is deemed probable that the liquidity event-based vesting condition will be met through the time the service-based vesting condition has been achieved. The Company began recognizing stock-based compensation expense for these RSUs in November 2021 when the liquidity event-based vesting condition applicable to these RSUs was satisfied upon the effectiveness of the Company’s IPO.
Foreign Currency
The functional currency of the Company’s foreign subsidiaries is the U.S. Dollar (USD). Monetary assets and liabilities are remeasured using foreign currency exchange rates at the end of the period, and non-monetary assets and liabilities are remeasured based on historical exchange rates. Gains and losses due to foreign currency are the result of either the remeasurement of subsidiary balances or transactions denominated in currencies other than the foreign subsidiaries’ functional currency and are included in other income (expense), net in the Company’s condensed consolidated statements of operations.
Income Taxes
The Company uses the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes, in which deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the condensed consolidated financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. The Company measures deferred tax assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be reversed. The Company recognizes the effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates as income and expense in the period that includes the enactment date. A valuation allowance is established if it is more likely than not that all or a portion of the deferred tax asset will not be realized. In determining the need for a valuation allowance, the Company considers future growth, forecasted earnings, future taxable income, the mix of earnings in the jurisdictions in which the Company operates, historical earnings and losses carryforward periods, and prudent and feasible tax planning strategies, as applicable.
The Company’s tax positions are subject to income tax audits by multiple tax jurisdictions. The Company recognizes the tax benefit of an uncertain tax position only if it is more likely than not the position is sustainable upon examination by the taxing authority, based on the technical merits. The Company measures the tax benefit recognized as the largest amount of benefit which is more likely than not to be realized upon settlement with the taxing authority. Significant judgment is
required to evaluate uncertain tax positions. The Company’s evaluations are based upon a number of factors, including changes in facts or circumstances, changes in tax law or guidance, correspondence with tax authorities during the course of audits, and effective settlement of audit issues. Changes in the recognition or measurement of uncertain tax positions could result in material increases or decreases in the Company’s income tax expense in the period in which the Company makes the change, which could have a material impact on the Company’s effective tax rate or operating results. The amount of income taxes paid is subject to examination by U.S. federal, state, and foreign tax authorities. To the extent the assessment of such tax position changes, the Company records the change in estimate in the period in which the determination is made.
Net Loss Per Share
Prior to the automatic conversion of all the shares of the Company’s outstanding convertible preferred stock into shares of common stock upon the closing of the Company’s IPO, holders of the Company’s common stock were not entitled to dividends until declared dividends to holders of the Company’s convertible preferred stock have been paid. The Company was required to use the two-class method of calculating earnings per share. The two-class method requires that earnings per share be calculated separately for each class of security. As the Company incurred losses during the periods presented, the Company used the methods described below to calculate net loss per share.
The Company calculates basic net loss per share by dividing net loss attributable to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of the Company’s shares of common stock outstanding during the respective period. Net loss attributable to common stockholders is net loss minus convertible preferred stock dividends declared, of which there were none during the periods presented.
The Company’s potentially dilutive securities, which include stock options and preferred stock, have been excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share as the effect would be to reduce the net loss per share. Therefore, the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding used to calculate both basic and diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders is the same.
Recently Adopted Accounting Standards
In August 2018, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2018-15, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other—Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer’s Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement that is a Service Contract, which aligns the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software (and hosting arrangements that include an internal-use software license). The accounting for the service element of a hosting arrangement that is a service contract is not affected by this new guidance. This new guidance is effective for the Company for its fiscal year beginning January 1, 2022, and may be adopted either prospectively or retrospectively to all implementation costs incurred after the date of adoption. The Company adopted this guidance effective January 1, 2022, and the adoption did not have a material impact on its condensed consolidated financial statements.
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes, which simplifies the accounting for income taxes by eliminating some exceptions to the general approach in ASC 740, Income Taxes in order to reduce cost and complexity of its application. This new guidance is effective for the Company for its fiscal year beginning January 1, 2022, and interim periods within its fiscal year beginning January 1, 2023, and early adoption is permitted. Most amendments within this guidance are required to be applied on a prospective basis, while certain amendments must be applied on a retrospective or modified retrospective basis. The Company adopted this guidance effective January 1, 2022, and the adoption did not have a material impact on its condensed consolidated financial statements.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards Not Yet Adopted
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments Topic 326: Credit Losses Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments (Topic 326), which requires an entity to utilize a new impairment model known as the current expected credit loss (CECL) model to estimate its lifetime “expected credit loss” and record an allowance that, when deducted from the amortized cost basis of the financial asset, presents the net amount expected to be collected on the financial asset. The CECL model is expected to result in more timely recognition of credit losses. This guidance also requires new disclosures for financial assets measured at amortized cost, loans, and available-for-sale debt securities.
Entities will apply the standard’s provisions as a cumulative effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the first reporting period in which the guidance is adopted. Topic 326 is effective for the Company for its fiscal year beginning January 1, 2023. The Company does not expect the adoption of this standard will have a material impact on its condensed consolidated financial statements.